The refinement of petroleum begins with the separation of crude petroleum in different fractions from the distillation. Novelist has much experience in this field. The fractions treat thorough more to turn them into product mixtures with by net diverse the marketable and more useful derivatives of petroleum and different methods, such as craqueo, reformed, alquilacin, polymerisation and isomerization. These mixtures of new compounds separate by means of methods such as the division and the extraction by reliable. The impurities are eliminated by several methods, for example, dehydration, elimination of the desalination, sulphur and the hydrogen. the processes of refinement of petroleum have been developed in response to the changing demands of the market for certain products. With the arrival of the combustion motor it commits the task main of the refineries became the gasoline production.
The amounts of gasoline available of the distillation were insufficient to satisfy the demand of the consumers. The refineries began a to look for ways to produce more gasoline and of better quality thus two types of processes of refinement of petroleum have been developed: * To break great heavy hydrocarbon molecules. * Remodeling or reconstruction of hydrocarbon molecules. According to previous the processes of refiancin of petroleum to try and to be able to transform the different derivatives from petroleum they are the following: * Distillation (Division): Since crude petroleum is a hydrocarbon mixture with different temperatures from boiling, that they can be separated by distillation in hydrocarbon groups that boil between two determined points of boiling. There are two types of distillation: atmospheric and to the emptiness.
* The Reformation: The reform is a process that uses heat, pressure and a catalyst (generally it contains platinum) to bring about chemical reactions with gasolines to update the high octane of the gasoline and like petrochemical raw material. The gasolines are hydrocarbon mixtures that contain many paraffins and naftenos. This matter premium gasoline comes from the distillation of crude petroleum or processes of catalytic craqueo, but also it comes from thermal craqueo and the hidrocraqueo processes.